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Milestones – By Sayyid Qutb

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,];yhkpa vOr;rpapd;:

MrphpaH : \`Pj; nra;apj; FJhg; (u`;)

nkhopg;ngaHg;G : M. Fyhk; K`k;kJ> ntspapL : ,yf;fpar;Nrhiy

\`Pj; nra;apj; FJhg; (u`;) mth;fspd; tho;f;if

,];yhj;ijj; jhd; tho;e;j jpUehl;by; (vfpg;jpy;) epiy ehl;Ltij ,yl;rpakha;f; nfhz;L tho;e;j ,e;j yl;rpa nrk;kypd; jpUg;ngah;. nra;apj; FJg; vd;gJ. mth; gpwe;J ngUikg;gLj;jpa jpUf;FLk;gj;jpd; jpUg;ngah; \`Pj;. ,];yhj;ij ,yl;rpakhff; nfhz;L tho;NthUf;F vjphpfs;> ,e;j cyfpy; toq;Fk; Rth;f;fj;jpd; jpwTNfhy;!. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; %jhijah;fs; mNugpahitr; Nrh;e;jth;fNs. ,th;fs; gpw;iw ehspy; vfpg;jpd; tlf;Fg; gFjpapy; te;J FbNawpdhh;fs;. ,g;gb mNugpahtpypUe;J te;J vfpg;jpy; FbNawpath;fspy; `h[p ,g;uh`pk; FJg; mth;fSk; xUth;. `h[p ,g;uh`Pk; FJg; mth;fs; mNugpahtpypUe;J te;J vfpg;jpy; mrpa+h; gFjpapy; `hfh vd;w fpuhkj;jpy; FbNawpdhh;fs;. khh;f;fg;gw;W kpf;f ,e;jg; ngUkfdhhpd; Jiztp mjhtJ nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; jhahh;; /ghj;jpkh `_ird; c];khd; mth;fshthh;fs;. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; je;ijahiug; NghyNt jhahUk; khh;f;fj;jpy; Mo;e;j gpbg;Gk; mstpy;yh mf;fiwAk; nfhz;lth;fshf ,Ue;jhh;fs;. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; 1906,y; gpwe;jhh;fs;.

xU jk;gpahUk; %d;W rNfhjhpfSkhth;. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; cld; gpwe;j K`k;kj; FJg; mth;fSk; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fisg; NghyNt ,];yhj;ij ,yl;rpakhff; nfhz;L tho;e;j ,d;Wk; tho;e;J tUk; ,];yhkpag; NguwpQh;. ,tuJ rNfhjhpfs; `kPjh FJg;> Mkpdh FJg; MfpNwhuhth;. (,tuJ %d;whtJ rNfhjhpapd; ngah; njhpatpy;iy). FLk;gj;jpy; %j;jth; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fNs. jdJ %j;j kfd; jpUf;Fh;Mid kdg;ghlk; nra;J> kpf mofpa Fuypy; mjid XjpLk; Xh; xg;gw;w fhhpahfj; jpfo;e;jpl Ntz;Lk; vd tpUk;gpdhh;fs; /ghj;jpkh `_ird; c];khd; mth;fs;. ,jdhy; jd; jiykfidj; jpUf;Fh;MNdhL gpizj;jhh;fs;. ,e;j md;G kfDk; md;idapd; me;j Miria epiwT nra;jpl jpUf;Fh;Mid Kad;W fw;W kddk; nra;jhh;fs;. MdhYk; Xir eaj;jpy; xa;ahuk; rw;W FiwthfNt ,Ue;jJ. jhahh; kfid jpUf;Fh;MNdhL gpizj;jhh;fs; vd;why; je;ij kfid kWikiag; gw;wpa vz;zq;fshy; %o;fr; nra;jhh;fs;. tptrhaj;ijj; njhopyhff; nfhz;l nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; je;ijahh; kWikia Kd;Nd fz;L tho;gtiug; NghnyhU tho;f;ifia tho;e;jhh;fs;. je;ij jd; tho;f;ifia mikj;jtpjk; kfid kWikapd; epue;ju epiditg; ngw;wtdhf khw;wpw;W. ,e;j vz;zj;ij ,jaj;jpNy Rke;Jjd; gs;spg;gbg;ig Jtf;f epiyf; fy;tpia jhd; jto;e;J tsh;e;j fpuhkj;jpNyNa Jtq;fpdhh;fs;. Muk;gf;fy;tpia Mh;tj;NjhL fw;whh;fs;. gs;spapd; Kjy; khztdhfj; jpfo;e;jhh;fs;. fy;tpapy; jiy epkph;e;J te;j nra;apj;FJg; mth;fis vg;ghL gl;lhfpDk; jhUy; cYhk; (,g;Nghija nfa;Nuh gy;fiyf;fofk;),y; cah; fy;tpf;F mDg;g tpioe;jdh; ngw;Nwhh;. md;iwa ehl;fspy; jhUy; cYhk; ,y; Nru tpUk;GNthh; jh[; frpah jhUy; cYhk; vd;w fy;tp epiyaj;jpy; jq;fs; Kd; gbg;ig Kbj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jf; fy;tp epiyaj;jpy; Kd; gbg;ig Kbj;jpl Ntz;Lkhapd; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; FLk;gj;jpdh; jq;fs; nrhe;j fpuhkj;ij tpl;Ltpl;L ,e;jf;fy;tp epiyak; ,Uf;Fk; ,lkhd `y;thd; vd;Dkplj;jpy; te;J jq;fpl Ntz;bajhapw;W. ,/J gSthdNjhh; ghijnad;whYk; kfdpd; Kd;Ndw;wq;fUjp ,e;jg; ghijiaj; Njh;e;njLj;J nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; ngw;Nwhh;fs; `y;thd; ,y; te;J jq;fpdhh;fs;. gs;spg;gbg;ig Kbj;Jtpl;L jhUy; cYhkpy; Nrh;e;jhh;fs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs;. my; m];fh; khh;f;ff; fy;tpapd; khh;gplk;. jhUy; cYhk; jw;fhy fiyfisf; fw;W fy;tpj;jFjpapd; mbg;gilapy; muR gzpfisg; gw;wpf; nfhs;s ghijg; Nghl;Lj; jUk; gy;fiyf;fofk;. 1929,y; jhUy; cYhk; fyhrhiyapy; jd; gl;lg;gbg;igj; Jtq;fpdhh;fs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs;. 1933,y; gp.V (B.A in Education) fy;tpj;Jiwapy; ,sepiyg; gl;lg;gbg;ig Kbj;jhh;fs;. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; ngw;wpUe;j mwpT Kjph;r;rpapd; mbg;gilapy; mth;fs; ,f; fy;YhpapNyNa Nguhrphpauhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. jhUy; cYhk; vd;w nfa;Nuh gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; mth; Nguhrphpauha; gzpahw;wpaf;fhyj;jpy; mth; jd;Dila jpwikfis ntspg;gLj;jpdhh;. Nkiyehl;L tsh;r;rpfisf; fz;L mtw;iwg; nghpjhfg; Nghw;wpa mg;gh]; K`k;kj; my; mf;fhj;Jk; ,Nj nfa;Nuh gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; gzpahw;wpdhh;. ,e;j Nkiy ehl;L Nkhfp my; mf;fhj;jhy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fSk; Nkiyehl;L tsh;r;rpfshy; ftug;gl;lhh;fs;. mg;gh]; K`k;kj; my; mf;fhj;jpd; jhf;fj;jpd; fPo; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; Nkiyehl;Lg; gz;ghLfisAk; nghpjhfg; ghh;j;jhh;fs;. Mq;fpy nkhopapd; Nky; myhjpahdNjhh; md;ig tsh;j;jhh;fs;. ghly;fs;> ,yf;fpa tpkh;rdk;> fl;Liufs;> fijfs; ,g;gbg;gytw;iwAk; vOjp kf;fisf; fth;e;jhh;fs;. Vd; mjpfhhpfisAk; Nrh;j;Jj; jhd; jd; vOj;jpd; tiyapy; tpo itj;jhh;fs;. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; jhUy; cYhkpy; ,Ue;jpLk; NghJ vOj;Jj; JiwapYk; fy;tpj; JiwapYk; fhl;ba Mh;tj;jhy; mth;fs; fy;tpf; $lq;fspd; fz;fhzpg;ghsh; vd gjtp cah;Tr; nra;ag;gl;lhh;fs;. md;iwf;F vfpg;jpy; tPw;wpUe;j Mq;fpNyah;fspd; vLgpb muR nra;apj; FJg; mth;fis ed;whfg; gad;gLj;jplj; jpl;lkpl;lJ.

,e;j mbg;gilapy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fis mnkhpf;fhTf;F mDg;gp Nkiyehl;Lf; fy;tp Kiwia ed;whf Muha;e;J Njh;r;rpg; ngw;W mjid vfpg;jpy; nray;gLj;jpl jpl;lkpl;lJ. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fsplk; rk;kjk; Nfl;lhh;fs;. mth;fSk; xj;Jf; nfhz;lhh;fs;. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; vfpg;jpy; jd; jpwikfis ntspf;fhl;bf; nfhz;bUe;j NghJ ,uz;L ngah;fis mbf;fb Nfs;tpg;gLthh;fs;.

Ø xd;W `]d; my; gd;dh vd;w ngah;

Ø ,d;ndhd;W ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; vd;w ngah;

,e;j ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; vd;gJ> vfpg;jpy; \hPmj; rl;lq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; my;yh`;tpd; Ml;rp epiyehl;lg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gij ,yl;rpakhff; nfhz;l Xh; KOikahd ,];yhkpa ,af;fk;. ,khk; `]d; my; gd;dh(u`;) mth;fs; ,e;j ,];yhkpa ,af;fj;ij cUthf;fp tsh;j;j jiyth;. Xh; jiyrpwe;j ,];yhkpa mwpQh;. ,e;j ,af;fj;jth;fs; ,e;j Nkiy ehl;Lg;gz;ghL> fyhr;rhuk; Mfpatw;iw td;ikahf vjph;j;jhh;fs;. Nkiyehl;Lf; nfhs;iffs; tpiutpy; xOf;ff;NfLfshy; miyf;fopf;fg;gLk; vd;Wk;> ,e;j Nkiyehl;bdh; ,];yhj;jpd; gfpuq;f vjphpfs; ,th;fs; ,];yhj;ijf; nfhs;ifastpy; mopf;f Kidgth;fs; vd;Wk; K];ypk;fs; jq;fs; jdpj; jd;ikfis ,oe;J Nkiyehl;Lg; gz;ghLfNshL ,ize;jplj; jpl;lk; Nghl;Lr; nray;gLgth;fs; vd;Wk; ,e;j ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jth;fs; gpur;rhuk; nra;J te;jhh;fs;. ,e;jg; gpur;rhuj;ij nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; Nfs;tpg;gLk; Nghnjy;yhk;> ,J rpy gy kjthjpfspd; ,l;Lf;fl;Lfs; vd;Nw vz;zpdhh;fs;. MfNt mth;fs; ,e;j ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;ijg; nghpjhf vLj;Jf;nfhs;stpy;iy. ,g;NghJ ,e;j Nkiyehl;Lf; fyhr;rhuj;jpd; nfhs;ifapd; epiyj;j fodp vdf; fUjg;gLk; mnkhpf;fh nry;y mtUf;F murhq;fNk nryT nra;a Kd; te;jJ. 1942 – 1943 ,y; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; mnkhpf;fh nrd;whh;fs;. mq;F gy;NtW fy;tp epiyaq;fisAk; ghh;itapl;lhh;fs;. ,d;Dk; gy fy;tp epiyaq;fspy; jq;fpapUe;J gapw;rpg; ngw;whh;fs;. ,uz;lhz;Lfs; mnkhpf;fhtpy; mDgtk; ngw;W vfpg;J jpUk;Gtjw;F Kd;dhy; ,q;fpyhe;J ,j;jhyp Rtpl;rh;yhe;J Mfpa ehLfSf;Fk; nrd;whh;fs;. ,e;j ntspehl;Lg; gazj;jpy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; gy;NtW mDgtq;fisg; ngw;whh;fs;. Kd;Ndw;wj;jpd; Kfl;bNy epw;gjhfg; Nghw;wpg; Gfog;gLk; mnkhpf;fh vg;gb xOf;fj;jpy; mjyghjhsj;jpy; tPo;e;J fplf;fpd;wJ vd;gijf; fz;lhh;fs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs;. ,];yhj;jpw;Fk; K];ypk;fSf;Fk; vjpuhf gfpuq;fkhf mnkhpf;fh nray;gLtijf; fz;$lhff; fz;lhh;fs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs;. K];ypk;fs; jq;fs; nghd;dhpa khh;f;fkhk; ,];yhj;ij tpl;L tpl;L Nkiyehl;L ehfhpfj;jpy; %o;fbj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf mnkhpf;fh vLj;J tUk; Kaw;rpfisf; fz;L mjph;e;jhh;fs;. ,];uhaPy; vd;nwhU ehl;il cUthf;f mjpYk; K];ypk; ehLfspilNa cUthf;f mnkhpf;fh vLj;J tUk; Kaw;rpfis Nehpy; ghh;j;j mth; jd;idNa ek;g Kbahky; jtpj;jhh;. Jtz;lhh;. ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jth;fs; vLj;J itj;jf; fUj;Jfs; Kw;wpYk; cz;ik vd;gijf; fz;$lhff; fz;lhh;fs;. ,];yhj;ijAk; mjid capnudg; Nghw;wp thOk; K];ypk;fisAk; xl;L nkhj;jkhf mopj;jpl mnkhpf;fhTk; NkiyehLfSk; jpl;lk; Nghl;Lr; nray;gLfpd;wd vd;gijj; jd; gd;dhl;Lg; gazj;jpy; fz;lhh;fs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs;. ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; nra;tJ ntw;Wg; gpur;rhuky;y njhiy Nehf;Fk; Jhug;ghh;itAk; nfhz;l Xh; cz;ikapd; gpufldk; vd;gij czh;e;jhh;fs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs;. ,e;j cz;ikfis ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jth;fs; Rw;wpr;Rw;wp nrhy;yp te;jijAk; mijj; jhd; kjthjk; vdg; Gwf;fzpj;jijAk; vz;zp tUe;jpdhh;fs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs;. jhd; jd;id ,izj;jpUf;f Ntz;ba ,lk; muR gzpay;y – my;yh`;tpd; gzpfis> fl;lisfis vfpg;jpy; epiyehl;bl ve;jj; jpahfj;ijAk; nra;jpl Jzpe;j ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fNk vd KbT nra;jhh;fs;. mnkhpf;fh kw;Wk; ntspehLfspy; mjhtJ Nkiy ehLfspy; jd; Rw;Wg; gazj;ij Kbj;Jtpl;L te;jTld; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jth;fspd; nfhs;iffisAk; nraw;jpl;lq;fisAk; Cd;wpg; gbj;jhh;fs;. ,khk; `]d; my; gd;dhtpd; jpUkiw tpsf;fq;fisr; nrtp kLj;jhh;fs;. vfpg;J muR mtUf;fhfg; ghJfhj;J itj;jpUe;j fy;tp mjpfhhp gjtpia Vw;f kWj;jhh;fs;. ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jpy; jd;id ,izj;Jf; nfhz;lhh;fs;. ,khk; `]d; my; gd;dhtpd; jpUkiw tpsf;fq;fisr; nrtpkLj;j nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs;> ehd; jpUkiwiaf; fz;L nfhz;Nld; vd Koq;fpdhh;fs;. jpUf;Fh;Mid kddk; nra;J itj;jpUe;j nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; Nkiyehl;Lg; gz;ghL> fyhr;rhuk; Mfpatw;wpy; jd; jdpj;jd;ikia ,oe;J nfhz;bUe;jhh;fs;. mj;NjhL Nkiyehl;lth;fspd; ehj;jpf rpe;jidapy; thh;j;njLj;j fy;tp Kiwia vfpg;jpy; tho;e;j ,];yhkpa gpQ;R neQ;rq;fspy; gjpa itj;J mth;fisAk; Nkiyehl;lth;fshf Mf;fpl rpwg;Gg; gapw;rpfisg; ngw;whh;fs;. ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jth;fs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; fz;fisj; jpwe;jhh;fs;. ,khk; `]d; my; gd;dhtpd; jpUf;Fh;Md; tpsf;fq;fs; jpUf;Fh;Md; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fsplk; vd;d vjph;ghh;f;fpd;wJ vd;gij ntspr;rk; Nghl;Lf; fhl;bd.

jpUf;Fh;Mid mikg;G eph;zar;rl;lkhff; nfhz;l Ml;rp ,q;Nf mikAk; tiu ehk; ,e;j ,yl;rpaj;jpw;fhf ciog;Nghk;. ,d;Nwy; ,e;j Kaw;rpapy; ,wg;Nghk;. vd;w `]d; my; gd;dhtpd; njspTk; JzpTk; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; cs;sj;jpy; kpfTk; Mog;gjpe;jd. my;Yk; gfYk; ,e;j yl;rpa Jbg;G mth;fSs; vjpnuhypj;Jf; nfhz;Nl ,Ue;jJ. ,`;thDy; K];yp%dpy; jd;id ,izj;Jf; nfhz;l gpd;dhy; jd; tho;tpy; GjpaNjhh; gpbg;Gk; Vd; tho;fpd;Nwhk; vd;w tpdhTf;fhd gjpYk; fpilj;jjhf czh;e;jhh;fs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs;. (1942 – 1943 ,y; ntspehl;Lg; gapw;rpf;fhf NkiyehLfspy; gapw;rpf;fhf nrd;w nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; 1945,y; vfpg;J jpUk;gpdhh;fs; mNj Mz;bd; gpw;gFjpapy; jhd; ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jpYk; ,ize;jhh;fs;). ,uz;lhk; cyfkfh Aj;jk; Kbe;jJk; vfpg;ijj; jq;fs; mbikj;jisapypUe;J tpLtpj;J tpLtjhf thf;fspe;jpUe;jdh; Nkiyehl;L Vfhjpgjpfs;. tof;fk; Nghy; Vkhw;wpdhh;fs;. vjph;j;jhh;fs; ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jth;fs;. ,e;j ,`;thd;fisf; fhufpUfq;fspy; milj;Jr; rpj;jputijg;gLj;jpdhh;fs; me;j Mjpf;fthjpfs;. ,];uhaPy; vd;nwhU ehl;il cUthf;fpdhh;fs;. /gy];jPdj;jpy;. ,jw;F If;fpa ehLfs; rigAk; mq;fPfhuk; je;jJ. clNd ,khk; `]d; my; gd;dh mth;fs; cyf K];ypk; ehLfis Nehf;fp If;fpa ehLfs; rigapypUe;J ntspNaWq;fs;. ,];uhaPYf;F vjpuhfTk; mjw;Fj; Jizahf te;jhy; ,e;j cyf Mjpf;fthjpfSf;F vjpuhfTk; [p`hj; mwptpAq;fs; vd miw$tp mioj;jhh;fs;. njhlh;e;J ,];uhaPYf;F vjpuhf ele;j [p`hjpy; ,`;thd;fs; fye;J nfhz;lhh;fs;. ,jpy; ,`;thd;fs; ntspf;fhl;ba tPuj;ij ,];yhkpa fy;tp vd;w Ehypd; %yk; mwpayhk;. ,dp ,`;thd;fis tpl;L itj;jhy; jq;fs; jpl;lq;fs; vfpg;jpy; muq;NfwhJ vd;gijf; fz;L nfhz;l Nkiyehl;lth;fs; ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jpd; jiyth; Kh;\pNj Mk; ,khk; `]d; my; gd;dh mth;fis nfhiy nra;jplj; jpl;lk; jPl;bdhh;fs;. 1949Mk; Mz;L gpg;uthp khjk; 12Mk;ehs; ,e;jj; jpl;lj;ijf; F&ukha;r; nray;gLj;jpdhh;fs;. mjhtJ 1949Mk; Mz;L gpg;uthp khjk; 12Mk; ehs; Kh;\pNj Mk; ,khk; `]d; my; gd;dh mth;fs; Rl;Lf; nfhy;yg;gl;lhh;fs; (my;yh`; mth;fSf;F Rth;f;fj;ijj; jUthdhf) ehL KOtJk; ,`;thd;fs; ifJ nra;ag;gl;L rpiwapy; milf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. rpj;jputijfSf;F cs;shf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. Kh;\pNj Mk; ,khk; `]d; my; gd;dh mth;fSf;Fg; gpd; ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jpd; jiyikg; nghWg;G `]d; my; Fijgp mth;fsplk; xg;gilf;fg;gl;lJ. mg;Jy; fhjh; mt;jh mth;fs; Kjd;ikr; nrayhsuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. 1952 Mk; Mz;L tiu nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jpd; rhjhuz njhz;luhfNt gzpahw;wpdhh;fs;. Mdhy; me;j ,af;fj;jpd; gzpfspy; jd;id KOikahf <LgLj;jpf; nfhz;lhh;fs;. 1952,y; ,`;thd;fSf;Fj; jug;gl;l rpiwr;rhiy rpj;jputijfs; Xh; KbTf;F te;jd. ,e;j Mz;by; jhd; vfpg;jpy; epiy nfhz;bUe;j kd;duhl;rp ,lwptplg;gl;lJ. 1952 Mk; Mz;L nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; ,;`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jpd; gpur;rhu FOj; jiytuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. 1953 khh;r; khjj;jpy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; lkh];f]_f;F mDg;gg;gl;lhh;fs;. mq;F ele;j rKjha ey;tho;T khehl;by;> rKjhag; Gul;rpf;F xOf;fg; Gul;rpNa Kjw;fy; vDk; jiyg;gpy; Ngrpdhh;fs;. 1953 brk;ghpy; N[hh;lhd; nrd;W te;jhh;fs;> ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jpd; rhh;gpy;. 1954Mk; Mz;L ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fk; elj;jpa ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; vd;w gj;jphpf;ifapd; Mrphpauhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; Mrphpauhfp ,uz;L jpq;fs; foptjw;Fs; [khy; mg;Jy; ehrhpd; muR ,e;jg; gj;jphpf;ifiaj; jil nra;jJ. mjhtJ 1954Mk; Mz;L nrg;lk;gh; jpq;fs; 10Mk; ehs; ,e;jg; gj;jphpf;if jil nra;ag;gl;lJ. [khy; mg;Jy; ehrh; 7.7.1954 Mk; Mz;L Mq;fpNyah;fNshL Xh; xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhz;lhh;. ,e;j xg;ge;jk; Mq;fpNyh vfpg;J xg;ge;jk; vd miof;fg;gl;lJ. vfpg;jpd; Fbkf;fisAk; vfpg;jpd; ,aw;if tsq;fisAk; me;epaUf;Fj; jhiuthh;j;jpLk; ,e;j xg;ge;jj;ij ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;jth;fs; vjph;j;jhh;fs;. my;yh`;tpd; rl;lq;fspd; Ml;rp jhd; Ntz;Lk; muG Njrpathjk; Ntz;lhk; cyf K];ypk;> rNfhjuj;Jtk; jhd; Ntz;Lk; vdg; NgRfpd;whh;fs; ,`;thd;fs;. ,th;fs; vd; Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;f;f rjp nra;fpd;whh;fs; vd;nwy;yhk; Fw;wq;$wp [khy; mg;Jy; ehrh; ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;ijj; jil nra;jhh;. ehL KOtJk; ,`;thd;fs; ifJ nra;ag;gl;L rpiwfspy; milf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. ,`;thd;fspd; caph; cilik khdk; ,itnay;yhk; gq;fg;gLj;jg;gl;ld. ,g;gbf; ifJ nra;ag;gl;L nfhl;lbapy; milf;fg;gl;L rpj;jputijr; nra;ag;gl;lth;fSs; nra;apj FJg; mth;fSk; xUth;. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fis mbf;fb Jd;GWj;Jthh;fs;. rpyehs; Nfhl;il n[apy; rpy ehs; ,uhZt n[apy; vd;nwy;yhk; khw;wpr; rpj;jputijr; nra;jhh;fs;. my;`p[hg; vd;w rphpahtpypUe;J ntsptUk; thu ,jo; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; rpj;jputijf;Fs;shf;fg;gl;l tuyhw;iw ,g;gb tUzpf;fpd;wJ. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fisf; ifJ nra;jpl ,uhZt mjpfhhpfs; te;jdh;. jhq;nfhz;zh cly; eypthy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; jpf;FKf;fhbf; nfhz;bUe;jhh;fs;. fbdkhd fha;r;ry;. ,e;epiyapy; mth;fSila iffs; rq;fpypahy; gpizf;fg;gl;ld. rpiwthry; Nehf;fp ,Oj;Nj nrd;whh;fs;. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; eil js;shba NghJ mbj;J cijj;J ,Oj;jhh;fs;. rpiwthry; Nehf;fp ele;J nfhz;bUe;j NghJ ,Oj;Jr; nrd;W nfhz;bUe;j NghJ je;j njhy;iyfs; jhq;fhky; %h;r;irahfp fPNo tpOthh;fs;. kPz;Lk; epidT te;jJk;> my;yh`_ mf;gh;> ypy;yh`py; `k;j; – my;yh`;Nt nghpatd;. vy;yhg; GfOk; my;yh`;Tf;Nf vd;w nrhw;fis cjph;j;J my;yh`;it Jjpj;jtz;zkhfNt ,Ue;jhh;fs;. n[apy; thrypy; mth;fs; nfhz;L tug;gl;lTld; n[apy; mjpfhhpfs; mth;fis mbj;jhh;fs;. ,g;gb Rkhh; ,uz;L kzp Neuk; nfhLikg;gLj;jpdhh;fs;. n[apy; tshfj;jpw;Fs; ed;whfg; gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l (my;Nrrpad;)eha; xd;iwf; nfhz;L te;J nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; njhiliaf; ft;tpaJ. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; njhilia thapy; ft;tpa tz;zk; me;j eha; rpiwtshfj;jpw;Fs; Rw;wpr;Rw;wp te;jJ. ,e;jr; rpj;jputijfSf;Fg; gpd;dh; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; Xh; fhujpUfj;jpy; milf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. mq;F VO kzp Neuk; ,uhZt mjpfhhpfshy; tprhuizf;Fl;gLj;jg;gl;lhh;fs;. ,g;gbr; rpiwapy; gLj;jpag;ghl;by; mth;fs; cly; js;shbj; jiuapNy tPo;e;jJ vd;whYk; mth;fs; Fd;wha; epd;whh;fs;. ,it Nghy; vj;jidNah tpjkhd rpj;jputijfs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; Nky; kioaha;g; nghope;jd. mj;jidapYk; mth;fs;> my;yh`_ mf;gh;> ypy;yh`py; `k;j; – my;yh`;Nt nghpatd;. vy;yhg; GfOk; my;yh`;Tf;Nf vd;Nw nkhope;J nfhz;bUe;jhh;fs;. ,jpy; mth;fs; xUtpj MWjiyAk; mikjpiaAk; ngw;whh;fs;. ,uT Neuj;jpy; mth;fs; mz;ltpayhj mstpy; Kilehw;wk; tPRk; Xh; miwapy; milf;fg;gLthh;fs;. mjpfhiyapy; rpj;jputijf;fhf ,Oj;Jtug;gLthh;fs;. ,g;gbj; njhlh;e;J te;j Ntjidfshy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; cly; Kw;whfg; gho;gl;lJ. ,jw;Fnky; mtuJ cly; jhq;fhJ vd;w epiyapy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; 1955 Nk jpq;fs; 3Mk; ehs; ,uhZt kUj;Jtkidapy; Nrh;f;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. ,e;epiyapy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; fhy;fs; iffs; kuj;Jg;Nghapd. neQ;R typahy; mth;fs; my;Yk; gfYk; Jbj;Jf; nfhz;Nl ,Ue;jhh;fs;. ,Ue;jhYk; my;yh`;Nt nghpatd; vy;yhg;GfOk; my;yh`;Tf;Nf vdr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;Nl ,Ue;jhh;fs;. a+Rg; my; M[k; vd;w nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; khzth; xUth; ,g;gbf; $Wfpd;whh;: #lhd jz;zPh; rpy Neuk; mth;fs; Nky; nfhl;lg;gLk;. ,d;Dk; rpy Neuk; kpfTk; Fsph;e;j jz;zPh; mth;fs; Nky; nfhl;lg;gLk;. jz;zPiuf; nfhl;bf;nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ iffshy; ,bg;ghh;fs;. fhy;fshy; cijg;ghh;fs;. kpff; Nftykhd nrhw;fshy; VRthh;fs;. kpfTk; Nftykhd iriffisf; fhl;b ieahz;b nra;J rphpg;ghh;fs;. ,j;jidapYk; nfhs;ifapy; nfhz;l cWjp rw;Wk; Fiyahky; epd;whh;fs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs;. 1955 Mk; Mz;L Nk jpq;fs; 13 Mk; ehs; Vfhjpgj;jpa Nkiy ehLfspd; vLgpbaha;r; nray;gl;l vfpg;J ePjpkd;wk; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fSf;F 15 Mz;L fLq;fhty; jz;lid toq;fpw;W. ,e;j ehspy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; ePjpkd;wk; nry;ytpy;iy. fhuzk; mth;fs; js;shj Nehahy; kUj;Jtkidapy; gLj;j gLf;ifahff; fple;jhh;fs;. ,e;j 15 Mz;L fLq;fhty; jz;lidj; jug;gl;L Kjyhk; Mz;L Kbe;jJ. Ml;rpahsh; [khy; mg;Jy; ehrhpd; JhJth; xUth; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fisr; rpiwapy; re;jpf;f te;jhh;. mth; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fsplk; gpd;tUk; KiwaPl;il itj;jhh;. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fNs ePq;fs; kd;dpg;G Nfl;L rpythpfis vOjpj; je;J tpLq;fs;. mjid ehq;fs; gj;jphpiffspy; gpuRhpf;fpd;Nwhk;. mJ gpuRukhdTld; cq;fis tpLtpj;J tpLfpd;Nwhk;. ePq;fs; ,e;jr; rpiwr;rhiyapd; rpj;jputijfspypUe;J tpLgl;L tplyhk;. tPl;by; epk;kjpahf ,Uf;fyhk;. ,jw;F nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; je;j gjpy; tuyhw;wpy; itu thpfshf Xuhapuk; nra;apj; FJg;fis cUthf;fpLk; td;ikAk; jpz;ikAk; ngw;wJ. me;epahaj;jpw;Fs;shf;fg;gl;lth;fs;> mepahaj;ij tho;f;if topahff; nfhz;lth;fsplk; kd;dpg;Gf; Nfl;bl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ tpe;ijahdJ. my;yh`;it Kd;dpWj;jpf; $Wfpd;Nwd;. kd;dpg;igf; NfhUk; xNu xU nrhy; vd;idf; fhg;ghw;wpLk; vd;whYk; mjid ehd; nrhy;yj; jahuhf ,y;iy. vd;idg; gilj;j vd; my;yh`;tpd; Kd; ehd;> mtid re;jpf;f tpUk;Gk; Kfj;NjhL mtd; vd;idg; nghUe;jpf; nfhs;Sk; tpjj;jpNyNa (ehd;) rkh;g;gpf;fg;gLtij tpUk;Gfpd;Nwd;. my;yh`;tpd; mofpa mbik nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; je;j ,e;jg; gjpiyr; Rke;J nrd;W Ml;rpahsh; [khy; mg;Jy; ehrh; Kd; rkh;g;gpj;jhh; me;j JhJ te;j Vtyh;. /gph;mt;dpd; thhpR vd;W jd;idg; gpufldg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L vfpg;jpy; ,];yhj;ij ,yl;rpakhff; nfhz;Nlhiuf; nfhd;W Ftpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j [khy; mg;Jy; ehrh; ,e;jg; gjpiyf;Nfl;L mjph;e;jhh;. ,J Nghd;w Ml;rp Rfq;nfhz;l mePjpahsh;fs; jq;fs; Kaw;rpfis rhjhuzkhf Klf;fpg; Nghl;L tplkhl;lhh;fs;. ,];yhj;ij ,yl;rpakhff; nfhz;L thOk; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fsplk; kd;dpg;G vd;nwhU nrhy;iyg; ngw;wpl vd;d tpiyAk; jUtJ vd KbT fl;bdhh; ,th;. kd;dpg;G Nfl;L tpLq;fs;. vfpg;J ehl;bd; fy;tp mikr;rh; gjtpia cq;fsplk; xg;gilj;J tpLfpd;Nwd; vd;nwhU Miriaf; fhl;b jd;Dila Jhjiu mDg;gpdh; /gph;mt;dpd; thhpR [khy; mg;Jy; ehrh;. ,jw;F nfhs;if NfhNkjfk; nra;;apj; FJg; mth;fs; je;j gjpy;> vd;idr; rpiw gpbj;jJk; rpj;jputijg; gLj;jpaJk; epahae;jhd;. mJ my;yh`;tpd; ehl;le;jhd; vd;why; ehd; rQ;ryg;gltpy;iy. vd;id rpiwgpbj;jJk; rpj;jputijg; gLj;jpaJk; nksl;Bfe;jhd; vd;why; ehd; ,e;j my;yh`;tpd; vjphpfsplk; kd;dpg;Gf; Nfl;fj; jahuhf ,y;iy. fy;tpj; Jiwia KOikahf ,];yhkpa kakhf;fpLk; ,yl;rpa Ml;rpapd; fPo; kl;LNk ehd; mikr;rh; gjtpfisg; gw;wp Nahrpj;jpl ,aYk;. fhyq;fs; efh;e;jd. rpiwf; nfhLikfNshL tho nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; gofpf; nfhz;lhh;fs;. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; fhl;ba cWjp rw;Wk; Fiwatpy;iy. NtW topapy;yhky; Ml;rpahsh;fs; jhk; rw;W ,wq;fp tu Ntz;bajhapw;W. rpiwapy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; Nky; gputhfnkLj;J Xba rpj;jputijfs; nfhQ;rk; nfhQ;rkhf fLikf;Fd;wpd. Ehy;fisg; gbf;f mDkjpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs; nra;apj; FJhg; mth;fs;. gpd;dh; vOjTk; mDkjpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. ,e;jg; gpe;ija tha;g;gpid ed;whfg; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;lhh;fs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs;. rpiwr;rhiyapd; Fiwe;j trjpiag; gad;gLj;jpf;nfhz;lhh;fs; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs;. rpiwr;rhiyapd; Fiwe;j trjpiag; gad;gLj;jpj;jhd; ,d;W cs;Sth; cs;snky;yhk; ctiff; nfhs;Sk; mstpy; jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; epoypy;.. vd;w ngahpy; jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; jpt;tpa trdq;fSf;F mwpthokpf;f njspTiufis ms;spj; je;jhh;fs;. ,e;jj; jpUf;Fh;Md; tpsf;fk; ,];yhkpa ,yf;fpa cyfpw;Ff;fpilj;j fpilj;jw;fhpa nghf;fp\k;. 10 Mz;LfSf;Fj; njhlHe;J rpiwapypUg;gth;fis mth;fSf;F toq;fg;gLk; jz;lidf; fhyk; vt;tsthf ,Ue;jhYk; tpLtpj;J tpLtJ vfpg;J ehl;bd; rpiw tpjp. ,e;j mbg;gilapy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; tpLtpf;fg;gltpUe;jhh;fs;. 1954 ,y; ifJ nra;ag;gl;l ,th; 1964Mk; Mz;L tiu rpiwapy; thbdhh;fs;. 1964,y; vfpg;jpd; rpiw tpjpfspd;gb ,th; tpLtpf;fg;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. vdpDk; 1964,y; vfpg;J ehl;Lf;F rpwg;G tpUe;jpduhf tUif je;j <uhf; ehl;bd; Ml;rpj; jiyth; mg;Jy; ryhk; Mhpg; mth;fs; Ntz;bf; nfhz;ljd; mbg;gilapy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; tpLjiy nra;ag;gl;lhh;fs;. rpiwapypUe;J tpLtpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs; vd;whYk; fhty;Jiwapd; fLikahd fz;fhzpg;gpd; fPo; itf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;. ,e;epiyapy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; Ehy; kMypk; /gpy; jhhPf; (Milestones) ,];yhkpa vOr;rpapd; iky;fw;fs; vd;w ,e;Ehy; ntspte;jJ. ,J fw;wth;fspilNa xU ngUk; gugug;ig Vw;gLj;jpaJ. ngUk;ghNyhh; ,e;j Ehiy /gpuQ;R ehl;by; Vfhjpgj;jpaj;jpw;F vjpuhf kf;fisf; fpsh;e;njor; nra;j kpuhg+tpd; vOj;Jf;fSf;F xg;gpl;lhh;fs;. fw;wwpe;j tl;lhuq;fspy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fis vfpg;jpd; kpuhg+ vd miof;f Muk;gpj;jhh;fs;. ,J MSk; th;f;fj;jpdiu cYf;fp ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Fwpg;ghf vOe;J tUk; ,];yhkpa miy [khy; mg;Jy; ehriu mr;RWj;jp ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mjdhy; jhd; 1964Mk; Mz;L khh;r; khjk; 24Mk; ehs; vfpg;J muR Xh; mtrur; rl;lj;ijf; nfhz;L te;jJ. ,e;j mtrur; rl;lk; toq;Fk; (119 of 1964) tprhykhd mjpfhuj;jpd; fPo; muR ahiu Ntz;LkhdhYk; ifJ nra;ayhk;. mg;gbf; ifJ nra;ag;gLgth;fs; ePjpkd;wq;fspy; M[h; gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lnkd;wpy;iy. muR tpUk;Gk; tpjj;jpy; tprhuiz elj;jyhk;. mNj Nghy; ifJ nra;ag;gLgth;fspd; cilikfisAk; ifg;gw;wpLk; mjpfhuk; muRf;F cz;L. ,e;jr; rl;lk; mwptpf;fg;gl;l gpd;dh; [khy; mg;Jy; ehrh; u\;ah nrd;whh;. u\;ahtpy; gj;jphpiffSf;Fg; Ngl;bf; nfhLj;jpLk;NghJ ,e;j Kiw ,`;thd;fis tpl;L itf;fg;Nghtjpy;iy vdf; fh;[pj;jhh;. mth; fh;[id ntspNa tUk; NghJ ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;ijr; Nrh;e;j rNfhjuh;fs; midtUk; ifJ nra;ag;gl;L tpl;lhh;fs;. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fNshL mth;fSila rNfhjuh; K`k;kj; FJg; rNfhjhpfs; Mkpdh FJg;> `kPjh FJg; MfpNahUk; ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhh;fs;. Ml;rpahsh; ehrhpd; KOf;NfhgKk; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; Nky; tPo;e;jJ. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; kPJ Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;f;fj; jpl;lk; jPl;b nray;gl;lhh; vdg; gop Rkj;jg;gl;lJ. nra;apj; FJg; mth;fisg; gfpuq;fkhd tprhuizf;F cl;gLj;jg; Nghtjhf mwptpj;jhh;fs;. gpd;dh; tprhuiz ufrpakhfNt elj;jg;gLk; vd;whh;fs;. mz;il ehLfspypUe;Jk; vfpg;jpypUe;Jk; vj;jidNah tof;fwpQh;fs; ,`;thd;fSf;fhf Fwpg;ghf nra;apj; FJg; mth;fSf;fhf thjhl Kd; te;jhh;fs;. ahiuAk; mDkjpf;ftpy;iy muR. ,ufrpakhf elj;jg; ngw;w ,e;j tprhuizapy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fspd; ,Wjp Ehyhfpa ,e;Ehypy; ,Ue;Nj gy gFjpfs; vLf;fg;gl;L Fw;wg;gj;jphpif jahh; nra;ag;gl;bUe;jJ. (,e;j tprhuizapd; xU gFjpia Ehypd; gpw;gFjpapy; ,lk; ngwr; nra;Js;Nshk;) tprhuizapd; ,Wjpapy; vfpg;jpd; ,uhZt ePjpkd;wk; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fSf;Fk; ,d;Dk; ,uz;L ,`;thd;fSf;Fk; kuz jz;lid toq;fpw;W. 1966 Mk; Mz;L Mf];l; jpq;fs; 25Mk; ehs; mjpfhiyapy; nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; Jhf;fpyplg;gl;lhh;fs;. (my;yh`;tplkpUe;Nj te;Njhk; mtdplNk jpUk;GNthk;) \`Pj; nra;apj; FJg; (u`;) mth;fspd; jpahfj;jpy; my;yh`; jpUg;jpAk; kfpo;r;rpAk; nfhs;thdhf MkPd;.

,e;EhYf;F \`Pj; nra;apj; FJg; (u`;) mth;fs; toq;fpa Kd;Diu

kdpj ,dk; jdJ tho;Tf;Fk; tsh;r;rpf;Fk; Njitg;gLk; khz;Gkpf;f newpfis ,oe;J epw;fpd;wJ. ,jdhy; moptpd; tpspk;gpy; epd;W nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ kdpj ,dk;. tsh;r;rpapy; thdj;ij vl;b Kl;b epw;fpd;Nwhk; vd khh; jl;ba NkiyehLfs; $l kdpj ,dk; kdpj ,dkhf tho;e;jpl top fhl;bl top njhpahky; mq;fyha;j;J epw;fpd;wd. (nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; vfpg;jpd; Kjd;ikf; fy;tp fz;fhzpg;ghsuhf ,Ue;j NghJ ,e;j NkiyehLfspy; Rw;Wg;gazk; Nkw;nfhz;L mtw;wpd; xOf;f tPo;r;rpia Nehpy; fz;lhh;fs; vd;gJ epidT $uj;jf;fJ.) Nkiy ehLfs; ,d;W tiu gpu];jhgpj;Jg; Ngrp te;j jj;Jtq;fs; mtw;iwf; fhg;ghw;wpltpy;iy. fPio ehLfisf; Fiwj;Jk; Fj;jpAk; Ngrp te;jd me;j Nkiy ehLfs;. Mdhy; gy Neuq;fspy; ,e;jf; fPio ehLfis mz;bj;jhd; jq;fs; gpur;rpidfisj; jPh;j;jpl;ld ,e;j NkiyehLfs;. ,g;gbr; nrhy;yp tpLtjhy; ,e;jf;fPio ehLfs; Nkiy ehLfis tpQ;rpf; fPh;j;jp ngw;W tpl;ld vd;wpy;iy. ,e;jf;fPio ehLfspy; gy jq;fisf; fk;a+dprf; nfhs;ifapd; xsptpsf;Ffs; vdg; gpufldg;gLj;jpd. cz;ikapy; ,e;j ehLfs; vjpYk; fk;a+dprk; vs;ssTk; thotpy;iy. fk;a+dprk; vd;w ,e;j khh;f;rprk; tWikapNy kf;fis coytpl;L chpikfNs mth;fSf;F ,y;iy vd Mf;fp Ntbf;if ghh;f;Fk; nfhLq;Nfhy; Ml;rpfspNy jhd; vLgLk;. vq;Nf vg;NghJ kdpjd; tWikapypUe;Jk; Vo;ikapypUe;Jk; tpLgl;L tpl;lhNdh me;j nehbapy; fk;a+dprk; mtDila vjphpahf khwptpLk;. ,jd; ,d;ndhU NtjidAk; Ntbf;ifAk; vd;dntdpy; mepahaKk; mf;fpuKk; nra;Ak; Ml;rpahsh;fspd; kz;zpNy $l fk;a+dprk; vLglhky; Ngha;f;nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. fk;a+dprk; KOikahfr; nray;gLfpd;wJ vdg; gpufldg;gLj;jg;gLk; u\;ahtpNyNa mJ tho Kbahky; tijgLfpd;wJ. (,d;W mJ kh];Nfhtpy; khz;Ltpl;lJ. ,J nra;apj; FJg; mth;fs; 1964fspy; vOjpaJ.) jdf;Fj; Njitahd czTg; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;jpl ,ayhky; Ntw;W ehLfspypUe;Jk; khw;Wf; nfhs;ifiaf; nfhz;lth;fsplkpUe;Jk; ,wf;Fkjp nra;J jdJ jq;f tsj;ijj; jhiu thh;j;Jj; je;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ fk;a+dprk;. fodpfSk; fhLfSk; muRf;Nf nrhe;jk; vd;W nghJTilik Ngrp muNr tptrhak; nra;Ak;> tpepNahfk; nra;Ak; vd;w gpLq;fp gwpf;Fk; nfhs;iffshy; Vw;gl;l FsWgb jhd; fk;a+dpr Gul;rp Ngrpa ehLfspy; czTg; gQ;rk;. RUq;fr; nrhd;dhy; kdpjdpd; ,aw;ifahd ,ay;Gf;F vjpuhfg; Nghh; njhLj;jpLk; Nghf;iff; nfhz;lJ jhd; fk;a+dprj;jpd; kpfg; nghpa gytPdk;. ,jdhy; mJ mopitj; Njb tpiue;Njhbf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. Nkiy ehLfspd; Kjyhspj;Jtf; nfhs;iffs; kdpjDf;F Ntz;ba cahpa topfhl;Ljy;fis toq;fj; jtwp tpl;ljhy;> fPio ehLfs; mjhtJ fk;a+dpr ehLfs; mopitj; Njb Xbf;nfhz;bUg;gjhy;> ,e;j cyif fhg;ghw;wpl xU nfhs;if mtrukhfj; Njitg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;j NkiyehLfs; mJ NghyNt ,e;jf; fPioehLfs; tpQ;Qhdj;jpy; mwpTj;Jiwapy; jhq;fs; ngw;wpUe;j tsh;r;rpapNy jsh;r;rpf; fz;L tpl;ld. Mjyhy; mit kdpj ,dj;jpw;F topfhl;l ,ayhkw; Ngha;tpl;ld vd ehd; $wtpy;iy. mwpTj;Jiwapy; ,e;j ehLfs; <l;ba ntw;wpfs; kdpj ,dj;jpw;Fg; gad;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;why; Xh; cd;djkhd tho;f;if newp clNdNa Njitg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;j cyif moptpypUe;J fhg;ghw;wp <Nlw;wj;jpd; ghy; ,l;Lr;nry;Yk; ,e;j tho;f;if newp epr;rakhf kdpjdpd; ,aw;ifahd ,ay;GfNshL ,iae;J nrd;wpl Ntz;Lk; ,y;iyNay; ,d;ndhU khngUk; Njhy;tpia kdpj ,dk; re;jpf;f Ntz;baJ tUk;. Njrpak; Njrpak; vd;W $tp kf;fs; kj;jpapy; ntspfisa+l;b ,ilf;fhyj;jpy; vLgl;l nfhs;iffSk; me;jf; nfhs;iffisr; nrhy;yp tho;e;j ,af;fq;fSk; jq;fs; tYit ,oe;J jsh;e;J epw;fpd;wd. cs;sijr;nrhy;tjdhy; kdpj %isfshy; cUthf;fg;gl;l nfhs;fiffnsy;yhk; jq;fs; Njhy;tpia xj;Jf; nfhs;sj;; Jtq;fptpl;ld. (1993 Mk; Mz;by; kl;Lk; 8000 n[h;khdpag; ngz;fs; ,];yhj;ijj; jOtpdhh;fs;. ,th;fs; Vd; ,];yhj;ijj; jOtpdhh;fs; vd;gijf; fz;lwpa Human Sciences vd;w kdpj tpQ;Qhdj;ijg; gw;wp Muha;r;rp nra;Ak; Muha;r;rpahsh; xUth; Kw;gl;lhh;. ,e;j Ma;tpd; Kbtpy; mth; $wpa cz;ikfs; ,q;Nf ftdpf;fg;gl Ntz;bait. mit: Nkiyehl;Lf; nfhs;iffs; ngz;fSf;Fj; Njitahd xOf;fg; ghJfhg;gpid ju ,aytpy;iy. ,jdhy; ngz;fs; kd mikjp ,oe;J rjhrh;t fhyKk; gPjpapNyNa tho;e;jpl Ntz;bajhapUf;fpd;wJ. ,];yhk; xOf;fg; ghJfhg;igAk; Md;kPf tpLjiyiaAk; epue;jukhd mikjpiaAk; jUfpd;wJ. (Islamic voice Dec 1994) njhlh;e;J te;j Njhy;tpfshy; Jtz;L epw;fpwJ kdpj ,dk;. ,ij kPl;L kPz;Lk; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij Nehf;fp ,Oj;Jr; nry;Yk; td;ikAk; jpz;ikAk; tha;e;j xNu nfhs;if ,];yhk; jhd;. cyf muq;fpy; mwpTj; Jiwapy; (tpQ;Qhdj;; Jiwapy;) kdpj ,dj;jpw;F ed;ik gaf;Fk; ey;y fz;Lgpbg;Gfis ,];yhk; vjph;g;gjpy;iy. Vw;fpd;wJ> cw;rhf%l;b cjtpfis ms;spj; je;J tsh;f;fpd;wJ vd;gJ kl;Lky;y kdpjdpd; ey;tho;Tf;fhfj; jhd; epiwNtw;wpl Ntz;ba flik vdf; fUJfpd;wJ. cyfpy; nfhz;L tug;gLk; ve;j tpQ;Qhd fz;Lgpbg;Gk; mJ vj;Jiz tpe;ijahdjhf ,Ug;gpDk; mJ ,iwtid kwe;jjhNah> mtid vjph;f;fpd;w njhdpapNyNah ,Ue;jplf;$lhJ. mwpTj; Jiwapy; mjpraq;fis epfo;j;JNthh; Xh; cz;ikia kdjpw;nfhz;lhf Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j cyif gilj;jtd; xUtd; ,Uf;fpd;whd;. mtd; gilj;jhd; midj;ijAk; kdpjDf;fhf me;j kdpjidg; gilj;jhd; me;j khz;Gkpf;f ,iwtid khl;rpikg;gLj;jTk; ed;wp $wTk;. khdpl ,dk; khDlk; kd mikjpNahL tho;e;jpl Ntz;Lk; vd;why; ,e;j cz;ik xj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;lhf Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j cz;ikia cyfpy; nray;gLj;jpf; fhl;bLk; eilKiw topfhl;LjYk; nray; jpl;lKk; mjid nray;gLj;jpf; fhl;ba tuyhWk; ,];yhj;jpw;F kl;LNk nrhe;jk;. MfNt jhd; ,iwkiw K];ypk;fisg; ghh;j;J ,g;gbf; $Wfpd;wJ:


K];ypk;fs; nra;a Ntz;baJ vd;d?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

· ve;jr; rKjhaj;jpd; rpe;jid Kw;whf ,];yhj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; mike;jpUf;fpd;wNjh

· ve;jr; rKjhaj;jpd; tho;f;if Kw;whf ,];yhj;jpd; topfhl;Ljypd; top mike;jpUf;fpd;wNjh

· ve;jr; rKjhaj;jpd; ,q;fpjq;fs; ,];yhj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; mike;jpUf;fpd;wNjh

· ve;jr; rKjhaj;jpy; tof;FfSk; gpzf;FfSk; my;yh`;Tk; mtDila jpUj;JhjUk; toq;fpaijf; nfhz;L jPh;f;fg;gLfpd;wdNth

· ve;jr; rKjhaj;jpd; fl;Lg;ghLfs; ,];yhj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; mike;jpUf;fpd;wdNth

· ve;jr; rKjhaj;jpd; ,d;gKk; Jd;gKk; ,];yhj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; mike;jpUf;fpd;wdNth

- me;jr; rKjhaNk ,];yhkpa rKjhak;.

,e;jg; nghd;dhpa topfhl;Ljiy K];ypk;fs; Gwf;fzpj;J tho;e;J te;jhy; epr;rakhf ,iwtdpd; JhjH (]y;) mth;fs; cq;fs; kPJ rhl;rpahf ,Uf;fpd;whh;fs; vr;rhpf;if. K];ypk; rKjhak; mjDila mry; tbit kPz;Lk; ngw Ntz;Lk;. mg;NghJ kl;LNk mJ cyif top elj;Jk; nghWg;igg; ngw KbAk;. mg;NghJ kl;LNk me;jg; nghWg;ig epiwNtw;wpLk; jFjpiag; ngw;wpl KbAk;. gy Ehw;whz;Lfshf jq;fs; nfhs;ifapNy ,Ue;J jlk; khwpg; Ngha; kdpjh;fs; fz;nlLj;j topKiwfspYk; gof;ftof;fq;fspYk; jq;fis Gijj;Jf; nfhz;l K];ypk; rKjhaj;ij kPl;f Ntz;Lk;. jdf;Ff; nfhQ;rKk; rk;ge;jkpy;yhj ,];yhj;NjhL ve;j tpjj;jpNyAk; njhlh;gpy;yhj nfhs;iffspd; mOj;jj;jhy; jdjpd; jd;ik(fis)ia ,oe;J epw;Fk; ,e;j K];ypk; rKjhaj;ijg; Gduikj;Jg; Glk; Nghl Ntz;Lk;. ,g;gb ,];yhj;jpw;F ntF Jhuj;jpy; tho;e;J nfhz;Nl ehq;fs; ,];yhkpag; ngUq;FbapdH vdr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;;wdH K];ypk;fs;. ,];yhj;ij tpl;Lg; gphpe;J tpyfp tho Muk;gpj;j fhyj;jpNy jhd; NkiyehLfs; tpQ;Qhdj;jpy; rhfrq;fis epfo;j;jp cyfpy; tphpe;J gue;J cyfj; jiyikiaf; ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;ld. fpilf;ftpayhj ,e;j ,izaw;w topfhl;Ljyhk; ,];yhj;ij tpl;L tho;e;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; ,e;j K];ypk; rKjhaj;ijr; rPuikg;gjw;Fk; mJ cyfj; jiyikia Vw;gjw;Fk; ,ilNa mfd;wNjhh; ,ilntsp ,Uf;fpd;wJ. vd;whYk; K];ypk;fisg; Gduikg;gJ vd;gJ mtrpak; epiwNtw;wpahf Ntz;banjhU flik. mjw;fhd Kaw;rpfis Kiwahf clNdNa Muk;gpj;jhf Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j Kaw;rpfis Muk;gpg;gjw;F Kd;dhy; ehk; ve;j mbg;gilfspy; ,e;jr; rPuikg;ig Muk;gpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gijj; njspthfj; njhpe;jpl Ntz;Lk;. Vnddpy; ehk; vLj;j vLg;gpNyNa jtWfisr; nra;jplf;$lhJ. mwpTj; Jiwapy; tpQ;Qhd thdj;jpy; mjpraq;fis ,];yhkpa rKjhak; nra;J fhl;b NkiyehLfis jiyFdpar; nra;jpl Ntz;Lk; vd;wpy;iy. ,ij ,g;NghJ ,];yhkpa rKjhak; nra;jplTk; KbahJ. ,g;gbnahU Nghl;bapy; ,wq;fpahf Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ mtrpaKk; ,yiy. Vnddpy; ,e;jg; Nghl;bapy; ,wq;fp mjpy; ntd;why; jhd; cyfj; jiyikiaf; ifg;gw;wyhk; vd;nwhU epiy ,q;Nf ,g;NghJ ,y;iy. ,g;gbr; nrhy;yp tpLtjhy; ehk; mwpTj;Jiwiag; gw;wpf; ftiyg;glhky; ,Ue;jplyhk; vd;wpy;iy. me;jj; Jiwapy; mkpo;e;jpUf;Fk; mopT rf;jpfis mg;Gwg;gLj;jp me;jj; Jiwapy; ,d;Dk; gy mjpraq;fis epfo;j;jp kdpj ,dk; tho topfhl;bl Ntz;Lk;. vdpDk; mjw;F Kd; ,d;iwa cyfk; jle;njwpahky; jl;Lj; jLkhwp epw;fpd;wNj mjid epiyngwr; nra;J epiyahf tho itf;Fk; cd;djkhd khz;Gkpf;f gz;ghL fyhr;rhuk; Md;kPf topfhl;Ljy; ek;kplkpUf;fpd;wd. ,tw;iwr; nray;gLj;jpf; fhl;bl Ntz;baJ mijtpl mtru mtrpak;. ,];yhkpa rKjhaj;ijg; Gduikj;jplTk; Xh; ,];yhkpa vOr;rpia Vw;gLj;jplTk; rpy iky;fw;fis ,q;Nf njhFj;jpUf;fpd;Nwd;. ,e;j iky;fw;fs; Xh; ,];yhkpa vOr;rpf;Ff; fl;baq; $wpLk;. ,jpy; ehd;F mj;jpahaq;fis ehd; vOjpa jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; epoypy;.. vd;w jpUkiw tpsf;fj;jpypUe;J vLj;Jj; je;Js;Nsd;.

,e;j ehd;F mj;jpahaq;fs;

(1) Gul;rp jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; topapy;

(2) ,];yhkpa Nfhl;ghLfSk; fyhr;rhuKk;

(3) my;yh`;tpd; topapy; Nghh;

(4) K];ypk; rKjhaj;jpd; Gduikg;Gk; mjd; ,ay;GfSk;

Vida mj;jpahaq;fs; Mo;e;j rpe;jidf;Fg;gpd; ehd; vOjpait. Xh; ,];yhkpa vOr;rpf;F ,it iky;fw;fshf mikAk; vd tpiofpd;Nwd;. ,d;Dk; rpy mj;jpahaq;fis ,dptUk; ehspy; ,izf;f ,Uf;fpd;Nwd;.

(,e;EhiyNa fhuzq;fhl;b nra;apj; FJhg; mth;fs; Jhf;fpyplg;gl;Ltpl;ljhy; ,e;j mj;jpahaq;fis vOjpl mth;fs; capUld; ,Uf;ftpy;iy)

my;yh`; ,jid epiwthdjhf Mf;Fthdhf. mWjpahd mwpTk; topfhl;LjYk; my;yh`;tplkpUe;J fpilg;gdNt.

,td;

cq;fs; cld; gpwg;G

nra;apj; FJg;.

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Written by lankamuslim

May 23, 2009 at 6:36 pm

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